● 1 out of every 5 adult females has uterine myoma.
Uterine myoma is a medical condition in which an innocent lump-like blotch is formed in the uterus. It is such a common medical condition that one out of every 4-5 adult females is said to have
We still do not know clearly why a myoma is formed. However, it is considered that the follicle hormone, which is a female hormone, has something to do with enlarging the myoma. Therefore, it is largely seen in women over the age of 30 and over, who are in their period of maturity, when secretion of hormones is very active.
● It may become a cause for infertility or miscarriage…
A uterine myoma is an innocent lump, thus it is not the kind of medical condition where you must start treatment immediately or you may lose your life. However, if you are bothered by an unusual amount of menstrual bleeding or suffering from anemia, you should consult a gynecologist.
Sometimes, there are cases in which you could not become pregnant because of a myoma. Particularly if you have submucosal myoma, the endometrium becomes bumpy, which may become a hindrance for the fertilized egg to be implanted. Uterine myoma may be a cause for miscarriage or premature birth, thus if you wish to become pregnant, we would recommend you have it treated at an early stage.
● A major symptom is an increase in the amount of menstrual bleeding.
A major symptom of a uterine myoma is the increase in the amount of menstrual bleeding. Of course, individual differences exist; but unlike endometrium, the menstrual pain does not become so strong.
Moreover, depending on where the myoma is formed, symptoms vary, too. “Interstitial myoma”, formed within the muscular layer of the wall of the uterus; and “subserous myoma”, formed inside the uterus and sticks out to the outside. However, subserus myoma may cause severe pain when its stem-like part growing out from the uterus is twisted.
If the amount of menstrual bleeding is quite large, and you tend to a have a condition such as hypermenorrhea or anemia, you will have “submucosal myoma”, or myoma formed in the submucosal of the uterus that sticks out toward the endometrial cavity in a blotch state.
Besides this, you may have constipation or increased urinary frequency because the myoma pushes on the other organs around it; or adversely, you may have difficulty urinating. On top of that, you may have other symptoms such as a bloating feeling in the stomach, a pain in the abdomen, or a pain in the lower back.
Types of uterine myoma
● 1：This is the most widespread type of “myoma”
It is formed in the uterine muscle, and accounts for 70% of all myomas. Sizes vary. In one case, myoma about the size of a person’s fist may be found; while in another, a few pieces of myoma ranging from the size of about a soy bean to that of a chicken’s egg may be found. If the myoma is small, the patient will not feel any symptoms or pain, but as it gets bigger, it will incur excessive menstruation.
● 2：“Subserous myoma” that sticks out like a lump
This type of myoma is formed under the “chorionic membrane”, and sticks out to the outer side of the uterus like a lump. Sometimes, “stem subserous myoma”, which has a mushroom-like stem may be formed. Its makeup varies; some are composed of 1 or 2 pieces, some come in bunches, or some are lumpy blotches. However, the symptoms do not come out, thus many patients are unaware of the myoma until they grow to a considerable extent.
● 3: ”Submucous myoma of the uterus” grows toward the inside
This type of myoma is formed directly under the mucous membrane (intima) that covers the inner wall of the uterus, and develops toward the endometrial cavity. This myoma also has a stemmed type, the stem mucous membrane lower myoma, where the myoma hangs from the stem like a cherry. When this stem grows longer and the myoma bursts out from the opening of the uterus to the intravaginal, it is called a myoma delivery. The uterus, which judges the myoma as a foreign matter, will contract and discharge the myoma to the outside of the uterus, just as it gives birth to an embryo. In many cases, menstrual bleeding does not stop, and causes anemia.
● 4：Various kinds of myomas develop in “Multiple myomas”
A state in which various kinds of myomas develop within a uterus are particularly called “multiple myomas”. Sometimes, 3 kinds of myomas are mixed to form 10-20 myomas. However, myomas are naturally benign; thus they are not life-threatening.
Treatment methods vary according to size or position of the myoma, thus there are cases where doctors will see the state of affairs.
Treatment method will be decided upon consultation with the patient, with consideration to the size and position of the myoma, the symptoms, and the patient’s age and wishes. Since it is a benign lump, if the patient does not come down with symptoms, doctors might just wait and see how things develop without any treatment.
If the symptoms are strong, hormones may be used to stop menstruation. Thus, by creating a state of menopause, development of the myoma will stop. However, this treatment has a side effect similar to the symptoms of menopausal syndrome, or weakening of the bones. Therefore, this treatment method is not used in young people; it is usually applied temporarily to people close to the menopausal age.
When the myoma is large and the symptoms are severe, surgery may be performed. If you are young, or if you wish to become pregnant in the future, you have the option of removing only the myoma, and keeping the uterus (enucleatic myomectomy). If the myoma is merged with adenomyosis of the uterus; or if many myomas are formed; and you do not have plans for pregnancy in the future, you may have surgery to remove the myoma and the uterus altogether.
Recently, a treatment method in which myomas are removed by using an endoscope has been performed. This way, you do not have to make an incision in your body. Furthermore, by putting a drug through the arterial wall that leads to the uterus and hardening it, such surgery methods as uterine artery embolus; or convergence ultrasonic therapy, which uses ultrasonic waves; have been attempted.